Identifying sea turtle species

There are seven species of sea turtles and to the untrained eye they look somewhat similar. In fact, turtles are often misidentified in the press: it is not rare to see the picture of a green turtle next to an article about loggerhead turtles. So how can you correctly identify the species of a turtle?

Leatherback turtles are easy to recognize because of their unique soft leathery back. For the other six species it is a bit trickier. The key to correctly identifying a turtle species is by examining its shell and the pattern of its scales (also known as scutes).

Picture 1

The name of the different scutes on a sea turtle carapace

By counting the costal scutes on a turtle’s carapace and the prefrontal scales on its head, you can tell each species apart. For example, hawksbill turtles have four costal scutes on each side of their carapace and two pairs of prefrontal scales on their head unlike green turtles that have four costal scutes but only one pair of prefrontal scales. By using the following turtle identification key you can easily identify the seven species of sea turtles. Alternatively, check out this interactive species identification key from the very informative Sea Turtle Conservancy.

Sea turtle identification key (courtesy of

Sea turtle identification key
(courtesy of

Of course there are other ways to quickly identifying turtle species. For example, loggerheads have a typically large head and a beautiful red-orange colour. With experience you learn how to tell apart one species from the other without resorting to counting scutes, but examining the carapace is always a sure way to confirm your identification!


Can you identify the species of this juvenile sea turtle?